투고논문

June 2020. pp. 63∼92
Abstract

This paper aims to trace the textual and ideological transformations of the view on the Buddhist sacred texts from Fashang (法上)’s Jiaojiyi (敎迹義, “The Meaning of the Teachings of the Buddha”, henceforth “JY”) to Jingying Huiyuan (淨影慧遠)’s Zhongjingjiaojiyi (衆經敎迹義, “The Meaning of the Teachings of the Buddha in the various Sūtras”, henceforth “ZhJY”); both were written in late 6th Century China. The result of this research can be summarized as follows:

ZhJY is established under the direct influence of the JY. While the text of ZhJY provides more elaborate sentences which were refined from JY, the main argument of JY seems to be distorted through the revision.

ZhJY inserted new but false information that JY did not consider. It resulted in a distortion of the historical facts reflected in JY. In addition, JY claims that there is no difference between Buddhist Sūtras since they are all derived from the Buddha himself, but in the process of recounting these contents, ZhJY claims that the teachings conveyed by all scriptures are different. As a result, ZhJY has become a less consistent and incomplete work compared to JY.

Incidentally, it was ZhJY that had had a more powerful impact on later Buddhists of East Asia in spite of its structural imperfection. Therefore, the Buddhist monks in the Tang Dynasty have come to encounter and criticize the thoughts of their former generation through the ZhJY which cannot be assessed as an accurate description of the tradition.

본고는 법상(法上, 490-580) 찬 「교적의(敎迹義)」와 이를 저본으로 작성된 『대승의장(大乘義章)』 「중경교적의(衆經敎迹義)」의 텍스트 비교 연구이다. 고찰 내용은 다음과 같다.

1) 「중경교적의」는 법상「교적의」의 문구를 답습하면서도 세세한 수정을 가하였다. 그 수정은 법상「교적의」의 내용을 진전시키려는 의도를 지니고 있었으나 결과적으로 법상「교적의」가 세밀하게 고안하였던 의도들을 훼손시키는 논의들이 나타나게 되었다. 그러한 개변에는 법상「교적의」의 내용을 진전시키려는 의도를 지니고 있었으나 결과적으로 법상「교적의」가 세밀하게 고안하였던 의도들을 훼손시키는 내용들이 나타나게 되었다.

2) 법상「교적의」는 “어떤 이의 설(一云)”로서 돈점 5시7계교와 일음교를 제시하였으나, 「중경교적의」에서는 돈점 5시7계교를 남조 논사 유규의 설로, 일음교를 지론학파의 종조였던 보리유지의 설로 명기하였다. 그러나 본고는 돈점 5시7계교가 유규의 설이 아닌 지론학파 성립 이전 북조에서 유행한 설이라는 것을 확인하였다. 또한 보리유지는 일음교 뿐 아니라 반만교를 설하였지만 「중경교적의」는 마치 일음교만이 보리유지의 설이고 반만교는 자설(自說)인 것처럼 서술하였다. 이는 「중경교적의」가 법상「교적의」의 텍스트를 수정하는 과정에서 사실에 맞지 않은 오해 내지는 왜곡을 담게 되었음을 의미한다.

3) 「중경교적의」는 대승경전이 모두 궁극적인 교설을 담고 있다는 법상「교적의」의 입장을 따라가면서도 문장의 가필이나 수정 과정에서 본래 지니고 있었던 텍스트의 정합성을 훼손시켰다. 전거가 명확하지 않은 경전의 설시(說時)를 추가하였고, 법상「교적의」의 텍스트를 변형하여 ‘각 경전에 종취의 구분이 있다’는 설로 개정하는 과정에서 경전에 대한 보편적인 이해와는 다른 해석을 제시하였기 때문이다.

결국 「중경교적의」의 내용은 법상「교적의」가 본래 지니고 있었던 문헌적, 사상적 통일성을 훼손시킨 불완전한 문헌이 되었다. 그러나 후대의 사상적 영향력은 「중경교적의」가 압도적이었고, 후대의 논사들은 「중경교적의」를 통해서 남북조시대의 경전관을 이해하게 된다.

References

    ◆ 약호 및 일차 문헌 ABBREVIATIONS AND PRIMARY SOURCES

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Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 63
  • No :0
  • Pages :63∼92