December 2019. pp. 155∼175
Abstract
The perception (pratyakṣa) is generally considered to be a means of valid cognition (pramāṇa) but its definition (lakṣaṇa) varies across Indian intellectual traditions. After Dignāga (ca. 480-540), Buddhists basically accepted the definition of perception that it is “free from conceptualization” (kalpanāpoḍha; Pramāṇasamuccaya 1.3c). Dharmakīrti (ca. 600-660) follows Dignāga's definition in his Pramāṇavārttika 3; however, in the Nyāyabindu 1.4-5 and the Pramāṇaviniścaya 1.4a-c, he states perception is not only “free from conceptualization” but also ”non-erroneous” (abhrānta). In addition, Dharmakīrti defines ”conceptualization” (kalpanā) as “cognition with verbal expression” (abhilāpinī pratītiḥ). The Tattvasaṃgraha (TS) of Śāntarakṣita (ca. 725-788) and its commentary, the Tattvasaṃgrahapañjikā (TSP) of Kamalaśīla (ca. 740-795) made significant efforts to explain Dharmakīrti's definition of “conceptualization.” In particular, they explained that conceptualization functions even in cognition without verbal contents by borrowing the views expressed Vākyapadīya chapter 1 Brahmakāṇḍa of Bhartṛhari (ca. 450-510). In TS 1214-1217, Śāntarakṣita establishes that conceptualization is directly or indirectly related to verbal expression on the following three points: (1) Even an infant who has not learned to speak is accustomed to the behavior pattern (itikartavyatā). (2) The linguistic nature of conceptual activities such as thinking and imagining cannot be denied. (3) The use of language (vyavahāra) in which word and its referent seems to have a fixed relationship is caused by conceptualization. In this manner, Śāntarakṣita extended the scope of conceptualization. According to him, conceptualization is not just “cognition with verbal expression,” but it encompasses speechless cognition since conceptualization occurs “as if having verbal expression” (sābhilāpeva; TS 1214).
디그나가(Dignāga, ca. 480-540) 이후 불교도들은 지각(現量, pratyakṣa)을 정의할 때, ‘분 별을 배제한 것’(kalpanāpoḍha)이라는 견해를 기본적으로 유지한다. 이후 다르마끼르띠 (Dharmakīrti, ca. 600-660)는 지각이 분별을 배제한 것일 뿐만 아니라 ‘착오가 아닌 것’(abhrānta)이라고 덧붙이며, 또한 분별에 대해서는 ‘언어표현을 가진 인식’이라고 설 명한다. 지각과 분별에 대한 다르마끼르띠의 부가적 정의는 이후 다양한 해석학적 논의 를 발생시킨다. 샨따락쉬따(Śāntarakṣita, ca. 725-788)의 󰡔땃뜨바쌍그라하󰡕(Tattvasaṃgra ha)와 그에 대한 까말라쉴라(Kamalaśīla, ca. 740-795)의 주석에서는 ‘언어표현을 가진 인 식’이라는 정의를 해명하는 데 상당한 노력을 기울이고 있다. 특히 이들은 문법학자 바 르뜨르하리(Bhartṛhari, ca. 450-510)의 󰡔바꺄빠디야󰡕(Vākyapadīya)에 나타난 견해를 차용 하여, 언어표현을 직접적으로 동반하지 않더라도 분별이 작동하고 있다는 사실을 다음 세 가지 근거를 통해 확립한다. (1) 말을 배우지 않은 아기들도 분별을 통한 활동방식 (itikartavyatā)에 익숙하다. (2) 생각하고 상상하는 등의 분별은 언어에 의해 꿰뚫린 것처럼 그 필연적인 관계가 부정될 수 없다. (3) 분별에 의해서 언어와 지시대상이 고정적 관 계를 맺고 있는 것처럼 보이는 언어사용(vyavahāra)이 발생한다. 이를 통해 그들은 언어 표현이 실제적으로 나타나지 않는 영역까지 분별의 외연을 더욱 폭넓게 설정하고 있으 며, 궁극적으로는 언어와 지시대상의 관계가 착오(bhrānta)에 기반하고 있다는 점을 밝 힌다. 이러한 접근은 디그나가가 불교 인식논리학을 체계화한 이후로 발생한 불교 안팎 의 쟁점들을 수렴하여 통합적인 이론적 틀을 제시하려는 시도로 볼 수 있다.
References
    약호 및 원전자료
  1. ∙ NB(Ṭ) Nyāyabindu(ṭīkā). ed. D. Malvania, Paṇḍita Durveka miśra's Dharmottarapradīpa: Being a Sub-Commentary on Dharmottara's Nyāyabinduṭīkā, a Commentary Dharmakīrti's Nyāyabindu, Patna: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute, rep. 1971.
  2. ∙ NBh Nyāyabhāṣya. ed. A. Thakur , Gautamīyanyāyadarśana with Bhāṣya of Vātsyāyana, Nyāyacaturgranthikā, no.1, New Delhi: Indian Council of Philosophical Research, 1997.
  3. ∙ NS Nyāyasūtra. See NBh.
  4. ∙ PS(V) Pramāṇasamuccaya(vṛtti), ed. E. Steinkellner, Dignāga’s Pramāṇasamuccaya,Chapter 1, 2005. URL: http://ikga.oeaw.ac.at/Mat/dignaga_PS_1.pdf.
  5. ∙ PSṬ Pramāṇasamuccayaṭīkā, ed. H. Lasic, H. Krasser, and E. Steinkellner, Jinendrabuddhi’s Viśālāmalavatī Pramāṇasamuccayaṭīkā Chapter 2: Part 1: Critical Edition, Beijing, Vienna: China Tibetology Publishing House and Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, 2013.
  6. ∙ PV Pramāṇavārttika, ed. Ram Chandra Pandeya, Pramāṇavārttikam of Dharmakīrti Pramāṇavārttikamvṛtti of Manorathanandin, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1989.
  7. ∙ PVin Pramāṇaviniścaya, ed. E. Steinkellner, Dharmakīrti’s Pramāṇaviniścaya: Chapters 1 and 2, Critically edited, Beijing, Vienna: China Tibetology Publishing House and Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, 2007.
  8. ∙ TS(P) Tattvasaṃgraha(pañjikā), ed. D. Shastri, Tattvasaṃgraha of Ācārya Shāntarakṣita with the Commentary 'Pañjika' of Shrī Kamalaśīla, vol.2, Varanasi: Bauddha Bharati, 1968.
  9. ∙ VP Vākyapadīya, ed. K.A. Subramania Iyer, Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari with the Vṛtti and the Paddhati of Vṛsabhadeva, Poona: Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute, 1966. 2차 자료 <단행본>
  10. ∙ 桂紹隆 外, 『認識論と論理学』, 東京: 春秋社, 2012.
  11. ∙ 戶崎宏正, 『佛敎認識論の硏究(上)』, 東京: 大同出版社, 1979.
  12. ∙ _____, 『佛敎認識論の硏究(下)』, 東京: 大同出版社, 1985.
  13. ∙ Bimal Krishna Matilal, Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar in lndian Philosophical Analysis, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, rep. 2005.
  14. ∙ Hattori Masaaki, Dignāga, On Perception, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968.
  15. ∙ John Taber, A Hindu Critique of Buddhist Epistemology, London/New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.
  16. ∙ K.A. Subramania Iyer, The Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari: Chapter I English Translation, Poona: Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute, 1965.
  17. ∙ Radhika Herzberger, Bhartṛhari and the Buddhists: An Essay in the Development of Fifth and Sixth Century Indian Thought, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publication, 1986.
  18. ∙ Theodore Stcherbatsky, Buddhist Logic, New York: Dover Publications, Inc. rep. 1962. <논문>
  19. ∙ 강성용, 「“pramāṇa”와 “pratyakṣa”에 대하여」, 『인도철학』 제16집, 서울: 인도철학회, 2004, pp.129-148.
  20. ∙ 박창환, 「구사론주(kośakāra) 세친(Vasubandhu)의 현상주의적 언어철학」, 『동아시아 불교문화』 제14집, 부산: 동아시아불교문화학회, 2013, pp.25-77.
  21. ∙ 배경아, 「불교인식론의 무착오성 논쟁」, 『불교학리뷰』 제17권, 논산: 금강대학교 불교 문화연구소, 2015, pp.79-108.
  22. ∙ 함형석, 「바르뜨르하리(Bhartṛhari)의 ‘말’ 개념에 담긴 세 가지 함의」, 『인도철학』 제48 집, 서울: 인도철학회, 2016, pp.191-218.
  23. ∙ _____, 「성언량의 비량귀속 담론 발전 양상 연구: 『땃뜨와상그라하』(Tattvasaṃgraha) 1488-1524를 통한 고찰」, 『동아시아불교문화』 제14집, 부산: 동아시아불교문화학회, 2013, pp.191-218.
  24. ∙ 片岡啓, 「自己認識の生成・背景・変質」, 『南アジア古典学』 第12号 , 福岡: 九州大学大 学院人文科学府{, 2017, pp.191-214.
  25. ∙ 斉藤明, 「バヴィア作『論理炎論』の識二分説批判」, 『多田考正博士古稀記念論文集・仏 教と文化』, 東京: 山喜房仏書林, 2008, pp.141-156.
  26. ∙ Erich Frauwallner, “Landmarks in the History of Indian logic”, Wiener Zeitchrift für die Kunder Süd und Ostasiens, Vol.5, Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, 1961, pp.125-148.
  27. ∙ Funayama Toru, “A Study of kalpanāpoḍha: A Translation of the Tattvasaṃgraha vv. 1212-1263 by Śāntarakṣita and the Tattvasaṃgrahapañjikā by Kamalaśīla on the Definition of Direct Perception”, Zinbun: Annals of the Institute for Research in Humanities, Vol.27, Kyoto: Kyoto University, 1992, pp.33-128.
  28. ∙ _____, “Kamalaśīla's Interpretation of 'Non-Erroneous' in the Definition of Direct Perception and Related Problems”, Shoryu Katsura, ed., Dharmakīrti's Thought and Its Impact on Indian and Tibetan Philosophy, Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1997, pp.73-99.
  29. ∙ _____, “Perception, Conceptual Construction and Yogic Cognition According to Kamalaśīla's Epistemology”, Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal, Vol.18, New Taipei City: Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies, 2005, pp.273-297.
  30. ∙ Kobayashi Hisayasu, “Non-deceptiveness and Non-erroneousness”, Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, Vol.60-3, Tokyo: Japanese Association of Indian and Buddhist Studies, 2012, pp.124-129.
  31. ∙ Hattori Masaaki, “Kamalaśīla's Interpretation of some verses in the Vākyakāṇḍa of Bhartṛhari's Vākyapadīya”, Asiatische Studien, Vol.47, Zürich: Swiss Asia Society, 1993, pp.135-140.
  32. ∙ Kondo Hayato, “Several Affinities between the Yuktidīpikā and Sāṃkhyatattvakaumudī in the Context of Perception”, Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, Vol.59-3, Tokyo: Japanese Association of Indian and Buddhist Studies, 2011, pp.53-57.
  33. ∙ Lambert Schmithausen, “The Definition of Pratykaṣa in the Abhidharmasamuccayaḥ”, Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens, Vol.16, Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, 1972, pp.153-163.
Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 61
  • No :0
  • Pages :155∼175