초기/인도불교

September 2020. pp. 27-60
Abstract

The Buddhist Pramāṇa tradition which started by Dignāga has developed two significant arguments for the doctrine of momentariness (kṣaṇikatva/kṣaṇabhaṅga): (1) vināśitvānumāna, an argument based on the inevitable extinction of all conditioned things or based on the Spontaneity of destruction, (2) sattvānumāna, an argument based on the existence of things or based on the theory that all permanent thing is lack of ability. The former is adopted in the Pramāṇavārttika which is the first work of Dharmakīti (ca. 600-660) with influence from Vasubandhu (ca. 5C). And the latter is created by Dharmakīrti in the Pramāṇaviniścaya, and it became the main method of inference of momentariness in the logical scene of the Buddhist Pramāṇa tradition, and had also decisive impact on the late development of this inference.

This paper deals with two interpretative problems on the former inference, vināśitvānumāna which belongs to the earlier tradition. Firstly, I will examine the problem that has been debated by several researchers about legitimacy of using the term vināśitvānumāna. Second problem is about how Dharmakīrti understood and changed the argument for momentariness of Vasubandu. These two problems which include the issue of historical background play important roles in investigating the detailed influence relationship between Vasubandhu and Dharmakīrti about the inference of momentariness. Finally I will reconsider the existing theories about how Dharmakīrti introduced the inference of momentariness of Vasubandhu, with analyzing the interchange of logical causal relation between impermanency and momentariness by Dharmakīrti in the process of utilizing and improving the inference of Vasubandhu.

디그나가로부터 시작된 불교논리학 전통은 다르마키르티 이래 찰나멸 논증(kṣaṇikatvānumāna)을 성립시키기 위한 두 가지 종류의 중요한 추론을 발전시켰다. 하나는 소멸에 근거한 추론(vināśitvānumāna), 혹은 소멸의 외부적 원인의 부재(消滅無原因)에 근거한 추론이고, 다른 하나는 사물들의 필연적 소멸을 상정하지 않는 존재에 근거한 추론(sattvānumāna)이다. 다르마키르티가 이 중에서 바수반두에 의해서 일차적으로 완성된 전자의 추론을 그의 초기 저작인 Pramāṇavārttika에 도입하고, 새롭게 후자의 추론을 창안하여 Pramāṇaviniścaya에 추가한 후, 이후의 저작들에서는 이를 찰나멸의 주요한 논증방식으로 삼았다는 것은 기존에 익히 잘 알려진 사실이다. 본 논문에서는 이와 같은 다르마키르티의 두 가지 종류의 찰나멸 논증 중에서 소멸의 외부적 원인의 부재에 근거한 추론과 관련하여 두 가지 해석상의 문제들을 논의한다. 첫 번째로 이 추론의 정의에 관한 기존 연구자들 사이에서 쟁점이 되었던 사안에 대해서 다룬다. 이는 vināśitvānumāna 라는 용어의 정당성 여부에 관한 문제이다. 두 번째로 다르마키르티가 바수반두의 찰나멸론을 이해하고 변용하는 방식과 관련된 것이다. 여기서 제기되는 두 가지 논제들은 모두 바수반두의 찰나멸론과 다르마키르티의 그것 사이의 구체적인 영향관계를 규명하는 데 중요한 역할을 하며, 역사적 배경을 고려해야 하는 내용이 포함되어 있다. 최종적으로 다르마키르티가 바수반두의 찰나멸 논증을 차용하는 방식에 대한 기존의 논의를 재고하고, 바수반두의 소멸에 근거한 추론을 활용하고 개선하는 과정에서 다르마키르티에 의해 시도된 무상과 찰나멸 사이의 논리적 인과관계의 역전에 관해서 고찰한다.
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Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 64
  • No :0
  • Pages :27-60