특집논문

September 2021. pp. 27-65
Abstract
Tantric Buddhism in Southeast Asia was thought to have been introduced in the 7th century through indirect evidences by or about Indian and Chinese monks who passed through the areas. Paradoxically, however, the result of the researches on the primary archaeological artifacts and inscriptions shows a different conclusion; in most of the cases, it was not until the end of the 9th or early 10th century that the tantric Buddhism seems to have been accepted as a state cult and supported by the royal sponsors. Champa has very clear traces of Buddhist tantra, such as the An Thai inscription of the early 10th century. Judging from the inscription saying that the statue of Heruka was enshrined at My Son in the 12th century, it is highly likely that the tradition of Yoginītantra was very popular. As for Khmer, from early 10th century in the reign of King Rajendravarman, the tantric Buddhism was praised by royal kings, and rapidly reached its high glory in the 11th and 12th centuries under the regime of Jayavarman V and Jayavarman VII. The comparative abundance of the inscriptions and other archeological artifacts provides the ground to delineate the tantric tendency of Khmer Buddhism. The tradition of yoginītantra is also evident. Sumatra is recognized as an exemplar of the early acceptance of tantric Buddhism among the countries, however, the archaeological sources for tantric Buddhism are not so abundant as expected. The inscriptions of the late 7th century (from Palembang) and of 13th century (from Padang Lawas) can be taken into account as the clues to the tantric Buddhism. In the case of Bagan, there are few clues to find traces of Tantric Buddhism, but there are places that show the characteristics of Tantric Mahāyana Buddhism, such as Abeyadana.
7세기 후반을 동남아에 밀교가 유입되기 시작한 시기로 보는 것은 주로 그 지역을 거쳐 갔던 인도나 중국 승려들의(에 대한) 간접증거들을 통해서 추정된 것이다. 그러나 역설적으로, 해당 지역에서 발굴되는 비문이나 불상과 같은 고고학적 일차 자료들을 통해 얻은 결과들은 이보다 다소 늦게 나타나는데, 대부분 9세기말이나 10세기초반 정도가 되어서야 명확한 밀교의 흔적이 나타난다. 참빠는 10세기초에 안 타이(An Thai) 비문을 통해 나타나는 것처럼 매우 명확한 불교 딴뜨라의 흔적이 나타난다. 12세기 미 썬(My Son)에 헤루까(Heruka)상을 안치했다는 비문의 설명으로 보아 요기니딴뜨라(Yoginītantra) 전통이 유행했었을 가능성도 매우 높다. 크메르의 밀교도 10세기 초 라젠드라바르만을 시작으로 자야바르만 5세와 자야바르만 7세에 이르는 11세기와 12세기에 전성기를 누린다. 다른 지역에 비해 비교적 밀교적 경향이 뚜렷이 확인되는 이유는 가장 많은 비문과 조각을 통해 불교사를 추정할 수 있기 때문일 것이다. 크메르 왕조에서도 헤바즈라(Hevajra)를 모신 요기니딴뜨라의 전통이 분명히 나타난다. 수마트라는 가장 일찍 밀교의 명확한 흔적이 드러나는 지역이지만 밀교를 위한 고고학적 단서들은 기대만큼 풍부한 것이 아니라고 생각된다. 짠디 굼뿡(Candi Gumpung)의 밀교적 해석을 예외로 한다면, 7세기 후반의 비문과 빠당 라와스(Padang Lawas) 지역 등에서 발견되는 13세기경의 단편적인 명문(銘文)들이 밀교의 단서가 된다. 바간의 경우는 밀교의 흔적을 찾을만한 단서가 거의 발견되지 않지만 아베야다나(Abeyadana)같이 밀교적 대승불교의 특성을 보여주는 곳도 존재한다. 이러한 동남아시아의 대승적 밀교, 혹은 불교 딴뜨라의 동향은 주로 비문과 도상을 연구하는 소수의 학자군에 의해 진행되고 있으며, 여전히 일차 사료들의 발굴과 연구자의 적극적인 관심이 요청된다.
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Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 68
  • No :0
  • Pages :27-65