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According to Vinaya-piṭka , violation of parajika by bhikṣs or bhikṣṇī should be punished with expulsion from Sangha . In case of other violations, however, the violators are not expelled from Saṃha but disciplined in various ways. In all the diverse cases of violations, “epenting”is one of the most important and indispensible element of discipline. The violator has to repent of his or her sin and make vow never to commit it in public. Repenting thus is one of the most important discipline for the harmonization of Saṃha. The minimum number of audience of a repenting rite is prescribed in proportion to the seriousness of the violation, ranging from just one colleague bhikṣk to twenty. Sŏ (Ch’n, Zen) monasteries (saṃhāāas) have Ch’ ing-kuei or “odes of Purity,”a characteristic feature of Sŏ school as an independent ecclesiastical institution of Buddhism. Punishments of violation of the Codes are also various in accordance with the seriousness. The heaviest one is permanent expulsion from Sŏ Saṃha, corresponding to Parajika of Vinaya-piṭka. The second heaviest one is removal from register and all offices of Sŏ Saṃha. In this case, the violator however may regain the status after some period of punishment and repenting. This corresponds to saṃhavaśsa of Vinaya that results in restriction of thirty five items. The Codes of Purity of Sŏ thus retains essential continuity with Vinaya while adapting it to particular historical, geographical and cultural conditions. Without such adaptation or modification, Sŏ school would not have been able to act and spread as an independent Buddhist institution. It can thus be said that a Sŏ order’ vitality is determined by its fidelity to its own codes of purity. The Codes of Chogye Order are also established on the basis of Vinaya with modifications in accordance with practicality. They are calibrated and optimized for the geographical and cultural conditions of Korean society today. They can be therefore taken as a localized and modernized form of Vinaya. Chogye Order would not be able to recover its vitality and identity as a healthy Sŏ order without adequate fidelity to its Codes.
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- Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
- Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
- Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
- Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
- Volume : 20
- No :0
- Pages :91~133