특집논문

March 2021. pp. 175-208
Abstract

This article attempts to describe, in a somewhat broader context, how the so-called “Pāli Fundamentalism” has been originated and been going through its transition in the history of Buddhist studies. Pali Fundamentalism is sometimes branded as “Pāli texts prioritization” or “Pali text puritanism” in the sense that the Pāli texts have been composed of the direct teachings of the Buddha who seemed to teach his disciples in Pāli Language, thus the Buddhist literature written in Pāli most accurately describes the actual voices of the Buddha.

This position that has been clearly shown in the works by the scholars of the Pali Text Society like Rhys Davids and Childers, continues to these days and is accepted by some scholars. However, all of the researches in the early 20th century had not been imbibed with the Pali Text Society mentality, but the scholars like Sylvain Lévi and Lüders gave the ideas by which we can trace back to the stages of development of the Pāli language. It was after World War II that the characteristics and historical changes of the language were reviewed in earnest, mainly through the research of German and British scholars such as Bechert, von Hinüber, and Norman. A much more elaborate discussion has been advanced thereafter. In particular, from their endeavor, we can come to a tentative conclusion that Pali is not a natural language native to a specific region, such as Magadhi, but an artificial language that the characteristics of various regions are mixed together long after the Parinirvana of the Buddha.

이 글은 최근 국내와 해외에서 논쟁적인 관점으로 떠오르고 있는 소위 ‘빨리 근본주의(Pāli Fundamentalism)가 어디에서 기원했으며 어떻게 전개되어왔는가를 다소 넓은 불교연구사적 맥락에서 기술하고자 했다. 빨리 근본주의를 빨리문헌 지상주의나 빨리문헌 청교도주의 등으로 부르기도 하는데, 이는 빨리어가 붓다가 사용했던 언어이거나 혹은 그에 가장 가까운 언어로서 그 언어로 작성된 불교문헌들이 붓다의 실제언어나 그의 교법을 가장 정확히 담고 있으며, 따라서 그 문헌들을 통해 초기불교의 모습을 복원할 수 있다는 주장을 담고 있다. 이러한 주장은 초기 빨리성전협회의 학자들로부터 시작하여 거의 논박되지 않은 채 현재까지 지속되고 있는데, 그것은 19세기말에서 20세기초 빨리어에 대한 연구 자체가 소수의 학자들에 의해 천천히 지속되었기 때문이기도 하다. 20세기 초반의 연구들이 모두 빨리성전협회의 학자들과 같이 빨리어가 불설을 온전히 보존하고 있다는 전통적인 관념과 과도한 환상을 갖고 있었던 것은 아니었다. 실뱅 레비Lévi나 뤼더스Lüders 등에 의해 빨리어의 발전단계에 대한 힌트가 제시되었고, 이러한 연구가 빨리어에 대한 상좌부의 전통적인 관점에서 벗어나도록 도와주었다. 그 언어의 특성과 역사적 변화가 본격적으로 재검토된 것은 2차대전 후이며 주로 독일과 영국의 학자들, 벡헤어트Bechert, 폰 힌위버von Hinüber나 노먼Norman과 같은 학자들의 연구를 통해 초기불교언어에 대해 훨씬 정밀한 논의가 진전되었다. 특히 폰 힌위버에 의해 빨리어는 마가디와 같이 특정지역에서 유통되던 자연언어가 아니라 불멸 이후 훨씬 뒤에 여러 지역의 언어적 특성이 혼합된 인공어라는 잠정적인 결론에 도달하게 된다. 빨리어에 대한 인식의 변화와 더불어 20세기 후반 동남아시아 불교에 대한 인류학적 연구가 도입되며 상좌부 전통을 바라보는 관점 또한 변화되었다. 문헌학을 통해서 파악된 불교와 현대 동남아 상좌불교의 커다란 괴리가 그 계기가 된 것이며, 이를 통해 상좌불교의 위상과 그들이 만들어냈던 빨리어와 빨리문헌의 권위 또한 재검토되었다.
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Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 66
  • No :0
  • Pages :175-208