중국불교

June 2021. pp. 173-209
Abstract

This paper aims to examine the Dunhunag Manuscript S.524R, a transcribed text of the Shengmanshu (勝鬘疏, “A commentary on the Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanādasūtra”) ascribe to the Dharma Master Zhao(照, ?-?). The result of this survey can be summarized as follows:

1) Compared with the Dunhuang Manuscript, the Taishō edition of S.524R contains substantial amount of erroneous passages. Total 206 errors have been verified through the re-calibrating work on them.

2) The colophon of S.524R tells us that this manuscript was established in the fourth year of Yanchang (延昌, 512-515 C.E.). However, another Dunhuang Manuscript P.2908, presumably written before the Daśabhūmikā-śastra was translated (511 C.E.), quotes passages from the Shengmanshu in the name of “Dharma Master Zhao (招)”. Thus it is natural to presume the original version of the Shengmanshu would be written before 511 C.E. Moreover, the author Dharma Master Zhao would be the one of the well-known monks of the Northern Dynasty in that era, since he was mentioned in the various texts in the late 5th Century.

3) S.524R adopts the abhidharmic doctrines of the Satyasiddhiśāstra (成實論) to interpret the passages of the Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanādasūtra. These interpretations were replaced by the theories of the Indian yogācāra-vijñānavāda when the Dilun School was established, but some theories originated in the Shengmanshu still exert influence on later Buddhist thought.

4) Among the existing commentaries of the Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanādasūtra written in the Northern Dynasty, the Shengmanshu was the first to introduce the trividhāni śīlāni theory of the Bodhisattvabhūmi into the interpretation of the sūtra. Therefore, it can be seen that the Buddhist in the Northen Dynasty began to study the Bodhisattvabhūmi from the time Shengmanshu was written.

본고는 돈황사본 S.524R 『승만경소』의 텍스트를 교정하고, 이를 통해 당 문헌에 나타난 낙양기(494-534) 불교의 몇가지 사상적 특징을 제시하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 본고의 연구결과를 정리하면 다음과 같다.

1) S.524R의 녹문은 󰡔대정장󰡕 권85에 수록되어 있으나 실제 사본과 비교한 결과 적지 않은 오류가 있었다. 본고에서는 사본을 전면 검토하여 총 206건의 수정 소요를 확인하였고, 이러한 사본의 오류 중에서는 S.524R이 적어도 두 차례 이상 필사된 문헌이라는 단서가 포함되어 있다.

2) S.524R의 필사년도는 “延昌四年”, 즉 515년이지만, 원본 『승만경소』의 찬술은 511년 『십지경론』이 번역되기 이전에 이루어진 것으로 보는 것이 타당하다. 실제로 S.524R은 『십지경론』 번역 이전 성립문헌인 P.2908에 인용되고 있으며 504년에 필사된 『승만의기』와 상호 대조되는 논의를 담고 있기 때문이다. 또한 원본 『승만경소』의 저자인 조(照)/초(招) 법사가 어떤 인물인지에 대한 정보는 거의 남아있지 않지만, 문헌 내의 인용관계를 보았을 때 북조에서 활동하였던 학장으로서 남조불교와도 긴밀하게 교류하고 있었던 인물이었을 가능성이 있다.

3) 『승만경소』는 심식설이라는 측면에서 『성실론』의 영향을 받은 흔적이 보인다. 그 사례 중 하나가 “相應”을 “四心同緣一境”으로 해석하는 부분인데, 이러한 해석은 이후 지론학파에서도 수용되었다.

4) 『승만경소』는 『승만경』의 “心法智”라는 용어에서 “心”을 意根으로, “法智”를 의근 중 空解로 해석하는데, 이러한 경문 해석은 이후 心法智를 제7알라야식으로 이해한 지론학파에게도 이어졌다.

5) 『승만경소』는 『승만경』의 십수(十受)를 보살지의 삼취정계로 해석하는데, 이러한 해석법은 현존 북조 찬술 『승만경』 주석서 중 S.524R이 최초이며 낙양기 보살지 연구의 흔적을 확인할 수 있다.

References

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Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 67
  • No :0
  • Pages :173-209