March 2021. pp. 267-294
Buddhism in Tibet was transmitted from India around the seventh century, was suppressed around the ninth century, and was resurrected in the late tenth century. Therefore, the eleventh century is considered as a comparatively early period in the history of Tibetan Buddhism. In this period, many buddhist tantra texts were introduced, and attempts to organize buddhist texts with various historical and philosophical strata in a systematic way were made, which triggered the generation of different Buddhist sects in Tibet. Also, various debates on the establishment of canons within each sect contributed to the establishment of the identity of each individual tradition. After the fourteenth century, commentarial traditions blossomed on the basis of the sectarian philosophies which had been more or less formalized by that time. In this academic atmosphere, the text showing the sectarian basis of the Jo nang pa school is Nya dbon Kun dga' dpal’s (1285~1379) Dispelling Darkness, Response to queries on the Problem of the Ground, Path, and Fruition (Gzhi lam 'bras gsum las brtsams pa'i dris lan yid kyi mun sel). It investigates philosophical and religious debates in fourteenth century Tibet, based on the Jo nang pa philosophical and religious stance. Two main points in this text epitomize the main issues of the time. The first is the realist interpretation of emptiness supported by Jo nang pa. The second is Nya dbon’s criticism on Rnying ma pa tantra. These two interrelated issues indicate that various thoughts and criticisms pertaining to the establishment of the authenticity of Indian Buddhism in Tibet functioned in the 14th century in multifaceted ways. They also demonstrate Nya dbon’s criticital and intellectual ability to interpret the Jo nang pa tradition which he was a part of, and ultimately place him as a giant in the history of Tibetan intellectual history.
티벳에서 불교는 7세기 경 인도로부터 전래되었고, 9세기 훼불(毁佛)이 있은 후, 10세기 말에서야 다시 꽃을 피우게 된다. 그래서 11세기는 티벳불교사에서는 비교적 이른 시기로 볼 수 있는데, 이 시기 무렵 다량의 인도 딴뜨라 불교 텍스트가 유입・번역되었고, 14세기경까지 다양한 역사적 층을 지닌 텍스트들을 체계적으로 이해하려는 시도가 이어졌다. 이는 교파 간 상이한 경전 해석학을 통해 교파의 정체성을 확립해 나가는 과정의 일환으로 이해할 수 있다. 이런 14세기의 학술적 배경에서 조낭빠(Jo nang pa)의 교파적 입장을 잘 보여주는 텍스트가 조낭빠 학자 냐온 뀐가뻴(Nya dbon Kun dga' dpal, 1285~1379. 이하 냐온)이 저술한 『마음의 의혹을 제거함: 기(基)・도(道)・과(果)에 관한 의문에 대한 답변』(이하 『답변』)이다. 『답변』에서의 조낭빠의 교파적 입장 중 하나는 실재주의적 공 해석 즉 타공(他空, gzhan stong)이라는 해석에 의해 지지되는 닝마빠(Rnying ma pa) 딴뜨라에 대한 비판이다. 이 논점은 또한 11세기 이후 티벳불교의 정통성을 확립하는 과정에서 발생한 비판적 검토들이 14세기까지도 활발히 전개되었음을 보여주는 이슈이다. 왜냐하면 냐온은 『답변』에서 11세기 대학자들의 『전도(顚倒)된 진언승(眞言乘, Mantrayāna)에 대한 논박』(Sngags log sun 'byin)이라는 텍스트들을 이용하여 산스끄리뜨 사본(rgya dpe)을 둘러싼 종교 전통의 정통성의 기준과 텍스트 비평이라는 이슈를 제기함으로써 닝마빠 딴뜨라의 정통성에 대해 비판을 가하기 때문이다.



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  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 66
  • No :0
  • Pages :267-294