특집논문

March 2021. pp. 97-144
Abstract

The collection of the early Buddhist canonical scriptures known as Tripiṭaka consists of three piṭakas (literally “baskets”) as the title indicates: the Vinaya-piṭaka, a collection of disciplinary monastic codes, the Sūtra-piṭaka, a collection of the Buddha's discourses, and the Abhidharma-piṭaka, a collection of analytic expositions. The origin and exact time of the introduction of the term “piṭaka” for the categorization of the Buddhist scriptures are unknown. Besides piṭaka, there is a further term for the classification of the canonical writings according to literary styles, namely aṅga (literally “limb”). There are two different lists of classification into aṅgas according to the number of the constituent parts, the one with nine constituent parts (navāṅga) and the other with twelve constituent parts (dvādaśāṅga).

The mutual and/or chronological relationship remains unclear between the two kinds of arrangements of the canonical writings, i.e. the distribution into three piṭakas on the one hand and the distribution into nine or twelve aṅgas on the other hand. The precise meanings of the nine and/or twelve constituent parts are likewise not without controversy. According to Buddhist traditions, by the time of the first council held in Rājagṛha shortly after the Buddha’s death the Buddha's discourses were already compiled under the generic title Dharma (teaching). The Dharma was subdivided into four or five groups of discourses called nikāya (literally “heap”) and/or āgama (literally “tradition”) according to criteria such as length, subject, numerical order, and others. It is more probable though that the collection of the discourses grew gradually and finally took the shape of the Nikāya or Āgama collections at a later stage.

Among the Buddhist traditions reporting the compilation of the Dharma and Vinaya by the time of the first council, the Theravāda school is the only one which passed down a complete collection of the Buddha's discourses, namely the Dīgha-nikāya, Majjhima-nikāya, Saṃyutta-nikāya, Aṅguttara-nikāya, and Khuddaka-nikāya. The Chinese counterparts of the four Nikāya collections, the Chang ahan jing (Dīrghāgama), Zhong ahan jing (Madhyamāgama), Za ahan jing (Saṃyuktāgama), and Zengyi ahan jing (Ekottarikāgama) are supposed to be of heterogeneous origin. The school affiliation of these Āgama collections remains controversial in spite of repeated scholarly efforts in the past century. The Chinese Saṃyuktāgama translated by Guṇabhadra in the 5th century C.E. builds an exception. The Sarvāstivāda affiliation of the latter is accepted by general consensus among scholars, and it also seems to be supported by recent findings.

The present paper seeks to examine the reliability of the accounts on the compilation of the Dharma and Vinaya by the time of the first council. It also seeks to expound the tendency of the Buddhist traditions to retroactively adjust the contents and volume of the Dharma and Vinaya of the earliest compilation to those of their canon established later after certain stages of development.

초기의 불교전적은 수록된 내용에 따라 세 분야로 나누어 經・律・論의 三藏으로 그리고 문학적인 유형에 따라 九部 내지는 十二部로 분류된다. 이러한 두 분류방법, 즉 三藏과 九部・十二部가 정립된 정확한 시기 및 상호관계 내지는 선후관계 그리고 구체적인 발전단계는 추측의 영역을 벗어나지 못한다. 팔리 티피타카 외에는 완벽히 구비된 三藏이 현존하지 않으며 전승과정에서의 添削과 再編을 배제할 수 없다. 전승부파에 따라 結集내용이 法과 比尼로 二分되는 경우와 經藏, 律藏 그리고 論藏으로 三分되는 경우가 있으나, 기본적으로는 法과 比尼에 마트리카가 추가되어 정립된 결과가 經・律・論 三藏의 원형이라고 할 수 있다.

經藏의 경우 그 안에 수록된 설법의 분류기준으로 전승부파에 관계없이 길이, 내용 그리고 法數의 세 범주가 적용된다. 그에 따라 經藏이 長部, 中部, 相應部, 增支部 또는 長阿含, 中阿含, 雜/相應阿含, 增一阿含으로 분류된다. 그 외의 전적은 별도로 屈陀伽 즉 小部라고 하는 범주하에 분류된다. 小部의 경우 전승부파에 따라 經藏의 일부를 이루는 경우와 經藏의 전적과는 별도로 취급되는 경우가 있다. 小部를 구성하는 전적의 내용도 부파 또는 부파 내의 전승계통에 따라 적지 않은 차이를 보인다. 論藏의 경우에도 양상은 비슷하다.

九部 내에 추정되는 발전단계 그리고 九部에서 十二部에의 전개는 三藏에 포함되는 전적의 증가와 다양화 그리고 그와 동반하는 편성과정을 반영하는 듯 하다. 전체적으로 자료가 미흡하고 성립사상 불명한 점이 많은 이유로 일괄적으로 말할 수는 없으나, 현존하는 자료에 입각하여 각 부파가 전하는 佛說의 結集배경과 三藏의 성립 그리고 修多羅藏을 구성하는 니카야와 아함의 형성과정을 槪觀함으로써 佛典成立史 내지는 流通史에의 새로운 접근을 위한 기반의 확립을 모색해 본다.

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Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 66
  • No :0
  • Pages :97-144