제1회 무진학술상 수상작

March 2021. pp. 51-96
Abstract
This article focuses on the worship of Skanda in Korean Buddhism, particularly Skanda depicted in Sinjung t’aenghwa (the Paintings of the Guardian Deities). In order to contextualize this complex pan-Asian god, the article tackles two different and yet related issues: while it chronologically presents Skanda’s transformation in Korean Buddhsm, the discussion also weaves Skanda with other Asian traditions to explain the functional aspects of Skanda worship that are cross-culturally found across time. The article demonstrates that even though a sinified version of Skanda worship dominated in Korean Buddhism, Korean interpretations of Skanda made significant connections with the Indian leitmotif of Skanda while adding new local interpretations of the deity. It further shows that the dominant presence of Skanda also indicates the centrality of the celestial deities (Skt. deva) in the Korean Buddhist pantheon and beyond.
본고는 조선후기 신중탱화에서 중요하게 부각된 위태천의 도상을 중심으로 하여, 한국 불교에서의 위태천 신앙에 대해 고찰한다. 보다 구체적으로, 한편으로는 한국불교 내에서 어떻게 위태천 신앙의 변모해 왔는지에 대해 살펴보며, 이와 동시에 또 다른 한편으로는 지역적, 시간적 영역을 교차하며 위태천의 신격이 어떤 종교적 상징성을 갖고 기능해 왔는지를 다른 아시아 지역에서 보이는 스칸다의 예를 살피며 (인도, 중앙아시아, 중국, 일본) 비교 고찰한다. 이와 같은 분석을 통해, 공시적 관점에서 중국화된 위태천 신앙이 한국의 위태천 신앙과 도상에 큰 영향을 끼쳤고 조선시대 신중탱화에서 중요한 신격으로 변모하는데 기여를 했지만, 통시적 관점에서 보았을 때는 고대 인도 스칸다에서부터 찾을 수 있는 위태천의 상징성과 종교적 역할 또한 조선후기 신중탱화 속에서 찾을 수 있음을 밝힌다. 또한 이 논문은 위태천이 단순한 호법 신중의 하나로 기존에 이해되어 온 것과는 달리, 불교 뿐 아니라 한국의 다른 종교 전통, 그리고 아시아에서의 불교 전통 전체에서 볼 때, 중요한 신앙의 한 축을 이루었음을 살핀다.
References

    ◆ 일차 문헌 PRIMARY SOURCES

     

  1. Chosŏn wanjo sillok 朝鮮王朝實錄. Translated and edited by Kuksa p'yŏch'an wiwŏnhoe. http://sillok.history.go.kr
  2. Chakbŏb gŭigam in Hanguk Pulgyo chŏnsŏ 韓國佛教全書. (Chosŏn vol.1) Seoul: Tongguk Taehakkyo Ch'ulp'ansa, 1979 [-2000].
  3. Daoxuan lüshi gantong lu 道宣律師感通錄. T2107, 52.
  4. Keizan Oshō shingi 螢山和尙淸規. T2589, 82.
  5. Lüxiang gantong zhuan 律相感通傳. T1898, 45.
  6. Taiheiki 太平記. Edited by Takahashi Sadaichi. 2 vols. Kyoto: Shinbunkaku, 1976.
  7. Zenrin shōkisen 禪林象器箋. B103, 19.
  8. ◆ 이차 문헌 SECONDARY LITERATURE

     

  9. AGRAWALA, Prthvi Kumar. 1967. Skanda-Kārttikeya: A Study in the Origin and Development, Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University.
  10. AN, Chinho (안진호). 2001. 『新編 增註 釋門儀範』 [*Newly Edited and Annotated Edition of The Manuals of the Buddhist Rituals], Seoul: 法輪社 (Pŏmnyunsa).
  11. BASKIND, James M. 2006. "Ming Buddhism in Edo Japan," PhD dissertation, Yale University.
  12. BUSWELL, Robert E. Jr. 1992. The Zen Monastic Experience: Buddhist Practice in Contemporary Korea, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 10.1515/9780691216102
  13. CHATTERJEE, Asim Kumar. 1970. The Cult of Skanda-karttikeya in Ancient India, Calcutta: Punthi Pustak.
  14. CHIN, Hong-seob (진홍섭) ed. 1995.『한국미술사 자료 집성』 [*Collected Works of Korean Art History Primary Data], vol. 4. Seoul: 일지사 (Iljisa).
  15. COPP, Paul. 2014. The Body Incantatory: Spells and the Ritual Imagination in Medieval Chinese Buddhism, New York: Columbia University Press. 10.7312/copp16270
  16. COVELL, Alan Carter. 1993. Folk Art and Magic: Shamanism in Korea, Seoul: Hollym International Cooperation.
  17. DEBROY, Bibek trans. 2015. The Mahabharata, vol 1. Haryana, India: Penguin Random House India.
  18. FAURE, Bernard. 1994. The Rhetoric of Immediacy: A Cultural Critique of Chan/Zen Buddhism, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  19. FAURE, Bernard. 2016. The Fluid Pantheon: Gods of Medieval Japan, vol.1. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 10.1515/9780824857028
  20. FAURE, Bernard. 2016. Protectors and Predators: Gods of Medieval Japan, vol.2. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 10.1515/9780824857721
  21. GENETTE, Gérard. 1997. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511549373
  22. IYANAGA, Nobumi (彌永信美). 2002. 『大黒天変相: 佛教神話學』 [*The Transformation of Mahākāla: Buddhist Mythology], vol. 1, Kyoto: 法藏館 (Hōzōkan).
  23. IYANAGA, Nobumi (彌永信美). 2002. 『観音変容譚: 佛教神話學』 [*The Changing Stories of Avalokiteśvara: Buddhist Mythology], vol. 2, Kyoto: 法藏館 (Hōzōkan).
  24. JEONG, Myeong-hi (정명희). 2015. 「조선시대 불교의식과 불교회화」 [*"Buddhist Rituals and Paintings During the Chosŏn Period"], in 한국의 원형을 찾아서 [*Looking for the Archetypes of Korea], Hanguk Kyong'yŏn yesulwŏn ed., Seoul: 열화당 (Yeolhwadang), 197-230.
  25. KENDALL, Laurel, Chong-sŭng Yang, and Yŏl-su Yun. 2015. God Pictures in Korean Contexts: The Ownership and Meaning of Shaman Paintings, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 10.21313/hawaii/9780824847647.001.0001
  26. KINNARD, Jacob N. 2004. "Divinities." in Encyclopedia of Buddhism, ed. Robert Buswell, New York: Macmillan, 233-35.
  27. KIM, Chunghee (김정희). 2001. 「고려왕실의 불화제작과 왕실발원 불화의 연구」 [*"Studies on the Royal Patronage of Buddhist Paintings and Productions at the Koryŏ Court"], 강좌미술사 (The Art History Journal), vol. 17, 127-53.
  28. KIM, Hyŏngjung (김형중). 2010. 「조선 후기 穢跡金剛 도상의 연구」 [*"Studies on the iconography of Ucchuṣma in the Late Chosŏn period"], Master's thesis, Dongguk University.
  29. KIM, Jung-Oak (김정옥). 2010. 「조선 후기 104위 신중도 도상 연구」 [*"A study of 'the 104 Groups Guardian Painting' from the Late Chosŏn period"], Master's thesis, Dongguk University.
  30. KIM, Pang-ryong (김방룡). 2008. 「조선 후기 불교의례의 정비와 근대적 계승」 [*"Reformation of Buddhist Rituals in the Late Chŏson and its Succession in Modern Korea"], 한국종교 (Korean Religions), vol. 32, 41-55.
  31. KIM, Pohyŏng (김보형). 2001. 『위태천 도상 연구: 고려 조선시대 사경화와 목판화를 중심으로』 [*"The Iconography of Skanda: Focusing on the Image from the Sutra Copying text and Xylograph"], Master's thesis, Dongguk University.
  32. KIM, Young-ja (김영자). 2005. 「산신도에 표현된 산신의 유형」 [*"Typology of Mountain Spirits in the Paintings of the Mountain Spirits"], 한국민속학 (Journal of Korean Folklore Studies), vol. 41, 187-223.
  33. KONDO, Yuzuru (近藤謙). 2008. 「清凉寺兜跋毘沙門天立像の文様と寺院調査における新出資料について」 [*"New Data from Seiryōji and the statue of Bishamonten at Seiryōji"], アジア宗教文化情報研究所研究紀要 (*Journal of Asian Religious Culture and Information), vol. 4, 88-92.
  34. KRISHAN, Yuvraj 1999. Gaṇeśa: Unravelling an Enigma, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  35. Kungnip chung'ang pangmulgwan 國立中央博物館 ed. 2013. 『신중 神衆: 불교의 수호신들』 [*The Deva deities: Protectors of Buddhism], Seoul: Korean National Museum.
  36. Kyūshū Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan 九州国立博物館 ed. 2011. 『黄檗: 京都宇治・萬福寺の名宝と禅の新風 : 九州国立博物館5周年記念黄檗宗大本山萬福寺開創350年記念 : 特別展』 [*Ōbaku Zen: Major Treasures at Mapukuji in Uji, Kyoto and the New Waves of Zen], Fukuoka: 西日本新聞社 (Nishi Nihon Shinbunsha).
  37. LEE, Jong-su (이종수). 2017. 「봉암사 결사와 그 불교사적 의미」 [*"The Significance of the Reform Movement of Pong'am-sa Temple"], 선학 (Sŏn Studies), vol. 48, 95-112. 10.22253/JSS.2017.12.48.95
  38. LEE, Seunghi (이승희). 2004. 「중국에서의 위태천 신앙의 수용과 변화」 [*"The Transformation of Skanda in China"], in Pulgyohgak kyŏjip taehwae, The Committee of the Korean conference on Buddhist studies ed., 불교학 결집대회 (*Proceedings of the Conference of Buddhist Studies), 1784-85.
  39. LEE, Seunghi (이승희). 2005. 「중국 송대의 위태천 신앙과 도상고찰」 [*"The Cult of Skanda and Iconography during the Song period in China"], 미술사연구 (Journal of Art History), vol. 19, 87-114.
  40. LEE, Seunghi (이승희). 2016. 「고려 후기 정토 문화의 천태적 성격과 영산회상변상도 연구」 [*"A Study of Tiantai Elements in Koryŏ Pure Land Buddhism and Yŏngsan Hŭisang Pyŏnsangdo"], 미술사논단 (Art History Forum), vol. 42, 7-32. 10.14380/AHF.2016.42.7
  41. LI, Yuhang. 2011. "Gendered Materialization: An Investigation of Women's Artistic and Literary Reproductions of Guanyin in Late Imperial China," PhD dissertation, University of Chicago.
  42. LIU, Yuanju (劉苑如). 2012. 「神遇: 論《律相感通傳》中前世今生的跨界書寫」 ["Encou-nters with Luminous: On the Crossing Incarnations in Lüxiang Gantong zhuan"], 清華學報 (Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies), vol. 43, no. 1, 127-70.
  43. Lo Muzio, Ciro. 2019. "Brahmanical Deities in Foreign Lands: The Fate of Skanda in Buddhist Central Asia." in Erika Forte, ed. Buddhist Road Paper 6.1 Special Issue: Ancient Central Asian Networks. Rethinking the Interplay of Religions, Art and Politics across the Tarim Basin (5th-10th c.), 8-43.
  44. MANN, Richard D. 2003. "The Early Cult of Skanda in North India: From Demon to Divine Son," PhD dissertation, McMaster University.
  45. MANN, Richard D. 2012. The Rise of Mahasena: The Transformation of Skanda-Kārttikeya in North India from the Kuṣāṇa to Gupta Empires, Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004218864
  46. MITCHELL, W. J. Thomas. 1986. Iconography: Image, Text, Ideology, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  47. MITCHELL, W. J. Thomas. 1994. Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  48. MORGAN, David. 2005. The Sacred Gaze: Religious Visual Culture in Theory and Practice, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520938304
  49. MUKHERJEE, B. N. 1989. "An Illustration of Iconographic Contact Between Karttikeya and Mañjuśrī in China," in Buddhist Iconography, Kapila Vatsyayan ed., New Delhi: Tibet House, 138-41.
  50. MUKHERJEE, B. N. 1987. "The Development of the Iconography of Kārttikeya (Mahāsena) in Central Asia," in Investigating Indian Art, Proceedings of a Symposium on the Development of Early Buddhist and Hindu Iconography, held at the Museum of Indian Art, Berlin, May 1986, Marianne Yaldiz and Wibke Lobo, eds., Berlin: Museum für Indische Kunst, 249-259.
  51. NAKANO, Genzō (中野玄三). 1989. 『六道繪の研究』 [*A Study of the Paintings of the Six Realms], Kyoto: 淡交社 (Tankōsha).
  52. Nara Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan (奈良国立博物館) ed. 1983. 『仏舎利の荘厳』 [*Adorning the Relics of the Buddha], Kyoto: 同朋舎 (Dōhōsha).
  53. National Palace Museum ed. 1994-1995. "A Special Exhibition of Illustrations of the Lotus Sutra," National Palace Museum Bulletin, vol. 29, nos. 5-6, 22-23.
  54. Kungnip Taegu Pangmulgwan (국립대구박물관) ed. 2009. 『팔공산 동화사』 [*Tonghwa-sa temple in P'algong Mountin], Taegu: 국립대구박물관 (Kungnip Taegu Pangmulgwan).
  55. Paekp'a Kŭngsŏn (백파 긍선). 2016. 『작법귀감』 [*Standardized Protocols of Rituals]. Translated by Kim Tujae in Hangŭl bon Hanguk Pulgyo chŏnsŏ 한글본 한국불교전서 [*Collected Works of Korean Buddhism in Korean] (Chosŏn, Volume.1), Seoul: 동국대학교 출판부 (Dongguk Taehak ch'ulp'anbu).
  56. PELLATT, Valerie. 2013. "Introduction," in Text, Extratext, Metatext and Paratext in Translation, Valerie Pellatt ed., Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 1-8.
  57. PERI, Noël. 1916. "Le dieu Wei-t'o," Bulletin de l'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, vol. 16, no. 3, 41-56. 10.3406/befeo.1916.5278
  58. RANA, S. S. 1995. A. Study of Skanda Cult. Delhi: Nag Publishers.
  59. REISCHAUER, Edwin O. trans. 1955. Ennin's Diary: The Record of a Pilgrimage to China in Search of the Law, New York: New York Roland Pr. Co.
  60. SEKIGUCHI, Masayuki (関口正之). 1984. 「図版解説: 泉涌寺蔵韋駄天画像」 [*"Iconography Explained: The Images of Skanda at Sennyū-ji temple"], 『美術研究』 (The Journal of Art Studies), vol. 330, 38-40.
  61. SHAHAR, Meir. 2008. The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 10.1515/9780824865023
  62. SHAHAR, Meir. 2015. Oedipal God: The Chinese Nezha and His Indian Origins, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 10.1515/9780824856960
  63. SHARF, Robert H. 2001. "Prolegomenon to the Study of Japanese Buddhist Icons." in Robert H. Sharf and Elizabeth Horton Sharf eds, Living Images: Japanese Buddhist Icons in Context, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1-18.
  64. SHIMIZU, Masumi (清水眞澄). 2002. 「長滝寺の宋代木造韋駄天立像と善財童子立像」 [*"The Chōryū-ji temple Idaten Statue from the Song Period and the Statue of Zenzai dōji"], Ars Buddhica, vol. 263, 13-25.
  65. SHINOHARA, Koichi. 2003. "The Story of the Buddha's Begging Bowl: Imagining a Biography and Sacred Places," in Pilgrims, Patrons, and Places: Localizing Sanctity in Asian Religions, Phyllis Granoff and Koichi Shinohara eds., Vancouver: UBC Press, 68-107.
  66. SONG, Hyŏn-ju (송현주). 2008. 「봉암사결사의 의례적 차원: 특징과 의의」 [*"The Significance of the Pong'amsa Reform Movement"] in 『봉암사 결사와 현대 한국 불교』 [*Pong'amsa Reform Movement and Contemporary Korean Buddhism], Taehan Pulgyo Chogyejong Purhak Yŏn'guso ed., Seoul: 조계종 출판사 (Chogyejong Ch'ulp'ansa), 59-104.
  67. SONGCH'ŎN (송천), Lee, Jong-su (이종수), Hŏ, Sangho (허상호), Kim, Chŏng-min (김정민) eds. 2011. 『한국의 불화 화기집』 [*The Collected Picture Records of Korean Buddhist Paintings], Seoul: 성보문화재 연구원 (Sŏngbo Munhwajae Yŏn'guwŏn).
  68. STEIN, Rolf. 1993. "The Guardian of the Gate: An Example of Buddhist Mythology, From India to Japan," in Asian Mythologies, Wendy Doniger trans., Yves Bonnefoy ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 122-36.
  69. STEVENSON, Daniel. 1999. "Protocols of Power," in Buddhism in the Sung, Peter N. Gregory and Daniel Aaron Getz eds, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 370-80.
  70. STEVENSON, Daniel. 2001. "Text, Image, and Transformation in the History of the shuilu fahui, the Buddhist Rite for Deliverance of Creatures of Water and Land," in Cultural Intersections in later Chinese Buddhism, Marsha Weidner ed., Honolulu: University of Hawai'i, 30-70.
  71. STEVENSON, Daniel. 2014. "Buddhist Ritual in the Song" in Modern Chinese Religion I: Song-Liao-Yuan (960-1368 AD), John Lagerwey and Pierre Marsone eds., Leiden, Boston: Brill, 328-448. 10.1163/9789004271647_008
  72. STRICKMANN, Michel. 2002. Bernard Faure ed., Chinese Magical Medicine, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
  73. TAK, Hyŏngyu (탁현규). 2011. 『조선시대 삼장탱화 연구』 [*A Study of Samjang Buddhist Paintings of the Chosŏn Period], Sŏngnam: 신구문화사 (Sin'gu Munhwasa).
  74. TAKAHASHI, Sadaichi (高橋貞一) ed. 1976. 『太平記』 [Chronicle of Great Peace], 2 vols. Kyoto: 思文閣 (Shibunkaku).
  75. The Institute of Traditional Cultures ed., 1981. "Tamil Murukan, Hindu Skanda-Kartikkeya and Buddhistic Mañjuśrī: Their Interrelations," Bulletin of the Institute of Traditional Cultures Madras, vol. 5, 63-107.
  76. VENKATARAMAN, K.R. 1956. "Skanda Cult in South India," in From the Cultural Heritage of India, vol. IV. Haridas Bhattacharyya ed., Calcutta: Ramakrishna Mission, 309-313.
  77. WATSON, Burton trans., 1993. The Lotus Sutra, New York: Columbia University Press.
  78. WHITE, David. 2006. Kiss of the Yogini: "Tantric Sex" in Its South Asian Contexts, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  79. WONG, Dorothy. 2007. "The Huayan/Kegon/Hwaom Paintings in East Asia," in Reflecting Mirrors: Perspectives on Huayan Buddhism, Imre Hamar ed., Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 337-84.
  80. WUJASTYK, Dominik. 1998. The Roots of Ayurveda, Delhi: Penguin.
  81. WUJASTYK, Dominik. 1999. "Miscarriages of Justice: Demonic Vengeance in Classical Indian Medicine," in Religion, Health, and Suffering, J.R. Hints and R. Porter eds., London: Kegan Paul International, 256-75.
  82. YAMANISHI, Yasuo (山西泰生). 2009. 「知恩院「韋駄天立像」の見た正月二日」 [*"The Second day of the New Year Ritual and The Idaten Statue at Chion-in temple"], 佛教大学宗教文化ミュージアム研究紀要 (*Journal of Religious Studies and Museum Studies at Bukkyo University), vol. 5, 59-69.
  83. YAN, Suhui (顏素慧) ed. 2001. 觀音小百科 [*Mini Encyclopedia of Avalokiteśvara], Taipei: 橡樹林文化 (Xiangshu linwenhua).
  84. YANG, Zhaohua. 2013. "Devouring Impurities: Myth, Ritual and Talisman in the Cult of Ucchuṣma in Tang China," PhD dissertation, Stanford University.
  85. YOSHIHIRO, Nikaidō. 2015. Asian Folk Religion and Cultural Interaction, Göttingen: VetR unipress; Taipei: National Taiwan University Press. 10.14220/9783737004855
  86. YUN, Sŏngch'an (윤성찬). 2016. 「단군 신화의 제석과 불교의 제석천 연관성 연구」 [*"A Study of Chesŏk in Tangun Mythology and its relation to Chesŏkch'ŏn"], 고조선 단군학 (*Journal of Tangun Studies and Kochosŏn), vol. 34, 73-91.
  87. YÜ, Chün-fang. 2001. Kuan-yin: The Chinese Transformation of Avalokiteśvara. New York: Columbia University Press.
Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 66
  • No :0
  • Pages :51-96