All Issue

2021 Vol.67

제1회 무진학술상 수상작

June 2021. pp. 1-43
Abstract
This paper uses an ethnographic approach to understand the place of sacred geography in contemporary Tibetan Buddhist practice. Utilizing a theoretical model suggested by a monastic leader from Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, this paper posits sacred space as agential. This agency manifests as the ability to accumulate imprints of sacrality, similarly to how senti ent beings accumulate karmic imprints throughout their lives. This paper analyzes two examples of sacred sites in contemporary Yushu, a rural, nomadic, high altitude area of Qinghai Province, and looks at religious labor performed upon these sites - circumambulation, death rituals, murals, inscriptions and offerings. The religious activities that occur in geographic spaces outside the monastery are not exclusive to religious elites, but are also performed by lay communities. This lay population are themselves highly diverse in terms of age, gender, class, literacy and religious training. Within the field of Buddhist Studies, there is a lacuna of data on these lay communities, despite the reality that they make up the majority of contemporary Buddhist practitioners. This paper focuses on both monastic and non-monastic practitioners to highlight the porous nature of the lay / monastic divide and to highlight the importance of the average practitioner. By conceiving of sacred spaces as partially sentient, the theoretical model of sacred space outlined in this paper gives agency to both geographic spaces, as well as the populations who perform religious labor upon the sites. In contemporary Tibetan Buddhism, the ordinary practitioner and the land itself play pivotal roles in propagating and revivifying the sacrality of sacred geography.
본고는 현대 티벳불교 수행에 있어서 종교 경관의 공간을 이해하기 위해 민속학적 접근을 사용한다. 본고는 티벳자치구에 위치한 위수 지역의 사원장에게서 제안 받은 이론적 모델을 활용하여, 종교 공간을 매개적인 것으로서 상정한다. 중생이 여러 생을 거쳐 업보를 쌓게 되는 과정과도 유사하게, 이러한 매개체로서의 종교 공간은 신성함의 흔적들을 축적할 수 있는 능력을 지닌 것으로 현현한다. 본고는 칭하이성의 높은 고도에 위치해 있어 전원적이며 유목민적 풍습을 보존하고 있는 현(現) 위수의 영지(靈地)들 가운데 두 곳을 분석하고, 순행(巡行), 장례 의례, 벽화, 비문, 공물과 같이 이 지역에서 행해지는 종교적 행위를 살펴본다. 사원 밖 지리학적 공간에서 일어나는 종교적 행위들은 종교 엘리트들에게만 독점적인 것이 아니라 신도 공동체들에 의해서도 행해진다. 이 신도들의 나이와 성, 계급, 문맹률, 종교 교육 정도는 매우 다양하다. 이러한 신도들이 현대의 불교 수행자 대부분을 이루고 있음에도 불구하고, 불교학 분야에서 이들에 관한 연구 데이터는 부족한 실정이다. 이에 본 연구는 신도와 출가 수행자로 양분할 때의 허점과 일반 수행자가 지니는 중요성을 강조하기 위해 사원의 출가 수행자와 재가 수행자라는 두 부류 모두에 초점을 맞춘다. 본고에서 개략적으로 다루는 종교 공간에 관한 이론적 모델은 종교 공간을 일부분 유정한 존재로 여김으로써 지리학적 공간은 물론 그곳에서 종교적 행위를 행하는 주민들에게도 모두 대리권을 제공한다. 현대 티벳불교에서 이러한 일반 수행자들과 지역 자체가 종교 경관의 신성화를 전파시키고 부활시키는 데 중추적인 역할을 하고 있는 것이다.
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Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 67
  • No :0
  • Pages :1-43