All Issue

2021 Vol.66

제1회 무진학술상 수상작

March 2021. pp. 1-49
Abstract
Within the Abhidharma literature, the doctrinal discussions on momentariness composed by the fifth-century C.E. Indic theorist, Saṅghabhadra, and rendered into Chinese by the pilgrim and scholar-monk, Xuanzang (602?–667 C.E.), stand as rigorous and detailed defenses of the Buddhist tenet of momentariness. This paper examines several passages on the doctrine of momentariness that are extant only within Xuanzang’s Chinese translations of two treatises by Saṅghabhadra, the Treatise Conforming to the Correct Logic of Abhidharma (Sanskrit, hereafter Skt. *Abhidharmanyāyānusāraśāstra; Chinese, hereafter Chi. Apidamo shun zhengli lun 阿毘達磨順正理論) and the Treatise Clarifying the Treasury of Abhidharma Tenets (Skt. *Abhidharmasamayapradīpikāśāstra; Chi. Apidamo zang xianzong lun 阿毘達磨顯宗論). In these masterworks, Saṅghabhadra uses the Abhidharma theory of the “conditioned factor” (Skt. saṃskṛta-dharma; Chi. youwei fa 有爲法)—the discrete entity that comes into being as the result of the myriad of “causes and conditions” (Skt. hetu-pratyaya; Chi. yin-yuan 因緣) that precede it—to construct a philosophical explanation for change as a pervasive and invariable feature of reality. In their meticulous translations and commentaries on these texts, Xuanzang and his Tang Dynasty disciples examine the four “stages” (Skt. avasthā; Chi. fenwei 分位) of a conditioned factor and reconsider the arguments enlisted by Saṅghabhadra to buttress the proposition that a conditioned factor activates another of its own kind in the moment that follows its cessation. This paper uses a source criticism research method to illustrate how several understudied translations of the Abhidharma works of Saṅghabhadra by Xuanzang—and the commentaries on these texts by his Tang disciples—contribute to the theoretical basis of the doctrine of momentariness within Chinese Buddhism.
인도 유학승 현장(玄奘, 602?-667)이 한역한 아비달마 문헌 중, 5세기 인도 논사 중현(衆賢, Skt. Saṅghabhadra)이 지은 찰나멸 논증은 불교 고유의 찰나멸론을 엄밀하고 상세하게 변호하고 있다. 본고는 현장의 한역으로만 전하는 중현의 저작 두 본, 󰡔아비달마순정리론(阿毘達磨順正理論, Skt. *Abhidharmasamayapradīpikāśāstra)󰡕과 󰡔아비달마현종론(阿毘達磨顯宗論, Skt. *Abhidharmasamay-apradīpikāśāstra)󰡕에서 찰나멸을 논의하는 몇몇 구절을 고찰하고자 한다. 여기에서, 중현은 아비달마의 교리인 유위법(有爲法, Skt. saṃskṛta-dharma, 무한한 “원인과 조건(因緣, Skt. hetu-pratyaya)의 결과로 존재하는 개별적 실체) 을 활용하여 현실세계의 보편적이고 불변하는 특징이 바로 변화라는 철학적 해석을 구축하였다. 현장 및 그의 당(唐) 대 제자들은 당 문헌들의 세심한 번역과 주석을 통해 유위법의 네 가지 분위(分位, Skt. avasthā)를 논구하면서 ‘하나의 유위법이 사멸할 때 바로 다음 찰나에 자신과 동류의 또 다른 유위법을 작동시킨다’는 명제를 지지하기 위해 중현의 주장을 재고하였다. 본고는 문헌비평적 방법론을 사용하여, 중현의 저작에 대한 현장의 대역(對譯), 그리고 당(唐) 대 제자들의 주석들이 중국 불교에서 찰나멸론에 대한 이론적 토대를 마련하는 데 어떻게 기여했는지를 추적하였다.
References

    ◆ 약호 및 일차 문헌 ABBBREVIATIONS AND PRIMARY SOURCES

     

  1. D sde dge Tibetan Tripiṭaka Bstan 'gyur (Derge). Preserved at the Faculty of Letters, University of Tokyo. Edited by Takasaki Jikidō 高崎直道, Yamaguchi Zuihō 山口瑞鳳, and Hakamaya Noriaki 袴谷憲昭. 1980. Tokyo: Sekai Seiten Kankō Kyōkai. Electronic edition from the TBRC http://www.tbrc.org/ and AIBS http://databases.aibs.columbia.edu/. Citations are indicated by the work number, followed by volume, page, and line number(s).
  2. T Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新修大藏經. Edited by Takakusu Junjirō 高楠順次郎 and Watanabe Kaigyoku 渡邊海旭, et al. 1924-1932. 85 vols. Tōkyō: Taishō issaikyō kankōkai 大正一切經刊刻會 (CBETA version). Citations are indicated by the text number, followed by volume, page, register (a, b, or c), and line number(s).
  3. X Shinsan Dainihon zokuzōkyō 卍新纂大日本續藏經. Edited by Kawamura Kōshō 河村考照. 1975-1989. Printed by Kokusho kangyōkai 國書刊行會. Originally compiled by Nakano Tatsue 中野達慧, 1905-1912. Kyōtō: Zōkyō shoin 藏經書院 (CBETA version). Citations are indicated by the text number, followed by volume, page, register (a, b, or c), and line number(s).
  4. *Abhidharmakośavṛttisūtrānurūpā; Chos mngon pa mdzod kyi bstan bcos kyi tshig le'ur byas pa'i rnam par bshad pa. Attributed to Saṅghabhadra ('Dun bzang) and/or Vinītabhadra ('Dul bzang). D4091, 141.
  5. *Abhidharmasamayapradīpikāśāstra, *Abhidharmakośaśāstrakārikāvibhāṣya, or *Abhidharmapiṭakaprakaraṇaśāsanaśāstra; Apidamo zang xianzong lun 阿毘達摩藏顯宗論. By Saṅghabhadra (Chi. Zhongxian 眾賢). Chinese translation by Xuanzang completed between 651 and 652 C.E. T1563, 29:
  6. Commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma (Chi. Jushe lun shu 俱舍論疏). By Fabao法寶. T1822, 41.
  7. Commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma (Chi. Jushe lun shu 俱舍論疏). By Shentai神泰. X836, 53.
  8. Commentary on the Verses of the Treasury of Abhidharma (Chi. Jushe lun song shu lun ben 倶舍論頌疏論本). By Yuanhui圓暉. T1823, 41.
  9. Concise Commentary on the Yogācārabhūmi (Chi. Yuqie shidi lun lüe zuan 瑜伽師地論略纂). By Kuiji. T1829, 43.
  10. Demonstration of Consciousness-Only (Chi. Cheng weishi lun成唯識論). Compiled by Xuanzang in 659. T1585, 31.
  11. Essay on the Mahāyāna Doctrines (Chi. Dasheng yizhang 大乘義章). By Jingying Huiyuan. T1851.44.
  12. Great Abhidharma Commentary (Skt. *Abhidharmamahāvibhāṣāśāstra; Chi. Apidamo Da piposha lun 阿毘達磨大毘婆沙論). Translated by Xuanzang between 656-659. T1545, 27.
  13. Jottings on Kuiji's Study Notes on the Cheng weishi lun (Chi. Cheng weishi lun shu chao 成唯識論疏抄). By Lingtai 靈泰. X819, 50.
  14. Lamp of the Full Meaning of the Treatise Demonstrating Consciousness-Only (Chi. Cheng weishi lun liaoyi deng 成唯識論了義燈). By Huizhao. T1832, 43.
  15. The Nexus of the Treatise Demonstrating Consciousness-Only in the Palm of the Hand (Chi. Cheng weishi lun zhangzhong shuyao 成唯識論掌中樞要). By Kuiji. T1831, 43.
  16. Notes on the Doctrines of the Mahāparinirvāṇasūtra (Chi. Dabo niepanjing yi ji 大般涅槃經義記). By Jingying Huiyuan淨影慧遠. T1764.37.
  17. Notes on the Treasury of Abhidharma (Chi. Jushe lun ji 俱舍論記). By Puguang 普光. T1821, 41.
  18. Notes on Yuanhui's Commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma (Chi. Jushe lun song shu ji 俱舍頌疏記). By Dunlin遁麟. X841, 53.
  19. Record of Śākyamuniʼs Teachings Compiled During the Kaiyuan Period (Chi. Kaiyuan shijiao lu 開元釋教錄). By Zhisheng 智昇. T2154, 55.
  20. Study Notes on the Treatise Demonstrating Consciousness-Only (Chi. Cheng weishi lun shu ji 成唯識論述記). By Kuiji窺基. T1830.43.
  21. Subcommentary and Explanation of the Meaning of the Buddhāvataṃsakasūtra (Chi. Da fangguang Fo Huayan jing suishu yanyi chao 大方廣佛華嚴經隨疏演義鈔). By Chengguan澄觀. T1736.36.
  22. Tattvasaṅgraha of Ācārya Śāntarakṣita with the pañjikā of Śrī Kamalaśīla. Edited by Swami Dwarikadas Shastri. 1968. Benares, India: Baudda Bhārati.
  23. Treasury of Abhidharma (Skt. Abhidharmakośabhāṣya; Chi. Apidamo jushe lun 阿毘達磨俱舍論; Tib.: Chos mngon pa'i mdzod kyi bshad pa) by Vasubandhu. Sanskrit text edited by Pralhad Pradhan under title Abhidharmakośabhāṣya of Vasubandhu. Patnam: Jayasawal Research Institute, 1967. First Chinese translation completed by Paramārtha 真諦 in 567. T1559, 29: Second Chinese translation completed by Xuanzang 玄奘 between 651-652. T1558, 29: Tibetan translation by Jinamitra, et al. D4090, 140.
  24. Treatise Conforming to the Correct Logic of Abhidharma (Skt. *Abhidharmanyāyānusāra śāstra; Chi. Apidamo shun zhengli lun 阿毘達磨順正理論) by Saṅghabhadra. Chinese translation by Xuanzang completed between 653-654. T1562, 29:
  25. Treatise on Entering Abhidharma (Skt. Abhidharmāvatāraprakaraṇa; Chi. Ru apidamo lun 入阿毘達磨論; Tib.: rab tu byed pa chos mngon pa la 'jug pa zhes bya ba) by Skandhila (Chi. Saijiantuoluo 塞建陀羅). Chinese translation by Xuanzang completed in 658 C.E. T1554, 28; D4098, 147.
  26. Verses of the Middle Way (Skt. Mūlamadhyamakakārikāḥ; Chi. Zhonglun 中論). Translated by Kumārajīva鳩摩羅什 in 409. T1564, 30.
  27. The Yogācārabhūmi of Ācārya Asaṅga: The Sanskrit Text Compared with the Tibetan Version. Edited by Vidhushekhara Bhattacharya. 1957. Calcutta: University of Calcutta.
  28. ◆ 이차 문헌 SECONDARY LITERATURE

     

  29. ABE, Shinya (阿部 真也). 2001. "Setsuna metsu ni tsuite: Kusharon o chūshin toshite (刹那滅について─倶舎論を中心として─)" ["Kṣaṇabhaṅga in the Abhidharmakośa-bhāṣya"], Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 49.2: 804-806. 10.4259/ibk.49.804
  30. AOHARA, Norisato青原令知. 1986. "Jun shōri ron ni okeru yū no taikei (順正理論における有の体系)" [The Structure of sat in Saṅghabhadra]. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 34.2, 765-68.
  31. BREWSTER, Ernest B. "Does the Cessation of an Entity Require an External Cause? The Debate between Vasubandhu and Saṅghabhadra on the Causality of Cessation as Translated by Xuanzang."
  32. CHEN, Shixian (陳世賢). 2008. Fati yu shijian guanxi zhi yanjiu-yi Jushe lun yu Shun zhengli lun dui sanshi shiyou zhi lunbian wei zhu (『法體與時間關係之研究--以俱舍論與順正理論對 三世實有之論辯為主』). Ph.D. dissertation. Chinese Culture University中國文化大學.
  33. CHEN, Shixian. 2007. "Shiqin, Zhongxian dui sanshi shiyou sixiang suoju renzhi tiaojian de lunbian (世親、眾賢對三世實有思想所據認識條件的論辯)," Zhengguan 正觀 [Satyābhisamaya, A Buddhis Studies Quarterly] 42, 135-87.
  34. COX, Collett. 2004. "From Category to Ontology: The Changing Role of Dharma in Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma," Journal of Indian Philosophy 32.5, 543-97. 10.1007/s10781-004-8635-4
  35. COX, Collett. 1998. "Kaśmīra: Vaibhāṣika Orthodoxy," In Collett Cox, Bart Dessein, and Charles Willemans, eds., Sarvāstivāda Buddhist Scholasticism. Leiden: Brill: 138-54.
  36. COX, Collett. 1995. Disputed Dharmas: Early Buddhist Theories on Existence. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  37. COX, Collett. 1988. "On the Possibility of a Nonexistent Object of Consciousness: Sarvāstivādin and Dārśṭāntika Theories," Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 11.1, 31-87.
  38. DELHEY, Martin. 2016. "From Sanskrit to Chinese and Back Again: Remarks on Xuanzang's Translations of the Yogācārabhūmi and Closely Related Philosophical Treatises," In D. Wangchuk, ed., Cross-Cultural Transmission of Buddhist Texts: Theories and Practices of Translation. Hamburg: Department of Indian and Tibetan Studies, Universität Hamburg, 51-81.
  39. DESSEIN, Bart, 2011. "Time, Temporality, and the Characteristic Marks of the Conditioned: Sarvāstivāda and Madhyamaka Buddhist Interpretations," Asian Philosophy 21.4, 341-60. 10.1080/09552367.2011.635887
  40. DESSEIN, Bart. 2007. "The Existence of Factors in the Three Time Periods: Sarvāstivāda and Madhyamaka Buddhist Interpretations of Difference in Mode, Difference in Characteristic Marks, Difference in State, and Mutual Difference," Acta Orientalia 60.3, 331-50. 10.1556/AOrient.60.2007.3.5
  41. DHAMMAJOTI, K. L. 2008. Entry into the Supreme Doctrine: Skandhila's Abhidharmāvatāra. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong.
  42. DHAMMAJOTI, K. L. 2007a. Abhidharma Doctrines and Controversies on Perception, 3rd. ed. Hong Kong: Centre of Buddhist Studies, University of Hong Kong.
  43. DHAMMAJOTI, K. L. 2007b. Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma, 3rd. ed. Hong Kong: Centre of Buddhist Studies, University of Hong Kong.
  44. DHAMMAJOTI, K. L. 2003. "The Sarvāstivāda Doctrine of Simultaneous Causality." Journal of Buddhist Studies 1, 17-54.
  45. FRAUWALLNER, Erich. 1995. Studies in Abhidharma Literature and the Origins of Buddhist Philosophical Systems. Sophie Francis Kidd, trans.; Ernst Steinkellner, ed. Albany: SUNY Press.
  46. FUKUDA, Takumi (福田 琢). 1988. "Jun shōriron ni okeru ui no shisō (順正理論における有為の四相)" ["The Four Kinds of lakṣaṇa of the saṃskṛta in the Nyāyānusāra"], Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 37.1, 60-62. 10.4259/ibk.37.60
  47. GANERI, Jonardon. 2019. "Analytic Philosophy in Early Modern India," In Edward N. Zalta, ed., The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/ sum2019/entries/early-modern-india/.
  48. GANERI, Jonardon. 2012. The Self: Naturalism, Consciousness, and the First-Person Stance. New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652365.001.0001
  49. GARFIELD, Jay L. 2015. Engaging Buddhism: Why It Matters to Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190204334.001.0001
  50. GOLD, Jonathan C. 2017. "Vasubandhu on the Conditioning Factors and the Buddha's Use of Language," In Jonardon Ganeri, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Indian Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 152-70.
  51. HAWLEY, Katherine. 2002. How Things Persist. New York: Oxford University Press.
  52. HAYASHI, I. 2017. "Can Flux Bring About Flux? An Appraisal of the Buddhist Momentarist's Response to the Causal Objection," Journal of Indian Philosophy 45.1, 49-71. 10.1007/s10781-016-9298-7
  53. HIRAKAWA, Akira (平川 彰). 1997. Buddhist Chinese-Sanskrit Dictionary. Tokyo: Reiyukai.
  54. HIRAKAWA, Akira (平川 彰). 1991. Hirakawa Akira chosaku shū dai ni kan: genshi Bukkyō: Genshi bukkyō to Abhidharuma Bukkyō (『平川彰著作集第2巻原始仏教とアビダルマ仏教』), Tokyo: Shunjūsha春秋社.
  55. HIRAKAWA, Akira (平川 彰), and Hirai, Shunei (平井 俊栄), eds. 1973. Index to the Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam. Chicago: Daizō Shuppan.
  56. HIROSE, Tomoichi (広瀬 智一). 1985. "Abhidharmadīpa ni miru Sahetukavināśa," Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 66, 102-106.
  57. KATŌ, Hiromichi (加藤 宏道). 1991. "Yūgi no shisō no teigi (有為の四相の定義)" ["The Definition of Saṃskṛta-lakṣaṇa"] Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 40.1, 35-39. 10.4259/ibk.40.35
  58. KATSURA Shōryū (桂 紹隆). 2002. "Vasubandhu no setsunametsu ronshō (ヴァスパンドゥの刹那滅論証)" ["Vasubandhu's Proof of Momentarines"], In Shoki Bukkyō kara Abhidharma he: Sakurabe Hajime Hakushi kiju kinen ronshū (『初期仏教からアビダルマへ:桜部建博士喜寿記念論集』) [Early Budhism and Abhidharma thought :in honor of doctor Hajime Sakurabe on his seventy-seventh birthday], Kyōtō: Heirakuji shoten平楽寺書店, 259-76.
  59. KUWATSUKI, Shin (桑月 心). 1984. "Setsunametsu ronshō o meguru mondai (刹那滅論証をめぐる問題)" [*"Some Problems in Relation to the Argument for Momen-tariness"], Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 32.2, 1025-1029. 10.4259/ibk.32.1029
  60. La Vallée Poussin, Louis de. 1926. L'Abhidharmakośa de Vasubandhu. Paris: Paul Geutner.
  61. MATSUSHIMA, Hisakami (松島 央龍). 2010. "Saṃghabhadra on karma and momentariness: bīja-theory and three other metaphors," Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 58.3, 43-57. 10.4259/ibk.58.3_1159
  62. MATSUSHIMA, Hisakami (松島 央龍). 2009. "Shūgen no setsuna metsu ronshō (衆賢の刹那滅論証)" ["Saṃghabhadra on Momentariness"], The Studies in Buddhism (『仏教学研究』) 65, 21-50.
  63. MEJOR, Marek. 1991. Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośa and the Commentaries Preserved in the Tanjur. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
  64. MITOMO, Kenyō (三友 健容). 1989. "Abhidharumadīpa ni okeru metsu fu dai in ronsō (『アビダルマディーパ』における滅不待因論争)" ["The Debate over Cessation without Cause in the Abhidharmadīpa"], Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 37.2, 916-22. 10.4259/ibk.37.922
  65. MITOMO, Kenyō (三友 健容). 1980. "Kyū zuikai ni tsuite (旧随界說について)" [*On the Ancient Theory of Anudhātu]. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 29.1, 25-30. 10.4259/ibk.29.25
  66. MOOKERJEE, S. 2006, (6th ed.; first published 1935). The Buddhist Philosophy of Universal Flux. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  67. PRUDEN, Leo. 1990. Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam of Vasubandhu. Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press.
  68. RONKIN, Noa. 2018. "Abhidharma," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (first published in 2010), Zalta, Edward N., ed., https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/abhidharma/
  69. SAKURABE, Hajime 櫻部建. 1954. "Genjō yaku Kusharon ni okeru tai no go ni tsuite玄奘譯俱舍論における體の語について." Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies印度學佛教學研究 2.2: 617-18. 10.4259/ibk.2.617
  70. SANDERSON, Alexis. 1994. "The Sarvāstivāda and Its Critics: Anātmavāda and the Theory of Karma," In Buddhism into the Year 2000: International Conference Proceedings. Pathumthani: Dhammakaya Foundation, 33-48.
  71. SHARF, Robert. (Forthcoming). "The Looping Structure of Buddhist Thought," Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
  72. SHARF, Robert. 2018. "Knowing Blue: Early Buddhist Accounts of Non-Conceptual Sense," Philosophy East and West 68.3, 826-70. 10.1353/pew.2018.0075
  73. SHIGA, Kiyokuni. 2018. "How to Deal with Future Existence: Sarvāstivāda, Yogic Perception, and Causality," Journal of Indian Philosophy 46.3, 437-54. 10.1007/s10781-017-9344-0
  74. VAN VELTHEM, M., trans. 1977. Le Traité de la Descente dans la Profonde Loi de l 'Arhat Skandhila. Louvain: Université catholique de Louvain, Institut orientaliste.
  75. VON ROSPATT, Alexander. 1995. The Buddhist Doctrine of Momentariness: A Survey of the Origins and Early Phase of this Doctrine up to Vasubandhu, Stuttgart: Steiner.
  76. YINSHUN (印順). 1978. Shuo yiqie you bu wei zhu de lunshu yu lunshi zhi yanjiu (『說一切有部爲主的論書與論師之硏究』) [*Research on the Masters and Works of Sarvāstivāda Buddhism], Taipei: Zhengwen chubanshe.
  77. YOSHIMIZU, Chizuko (吉水 千鶴子). 2013. "Kōjō na mono ha naze munōryoku ka-setsuna metsu ronshō riron teki haikei (恒常なものはなぜ無能力か-刹那滅論証の理論的背景)" [Why is a Permanent Thing Inefficacious?], Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 48.1, 196-200.
  78. YOSHIMIZU, Chizuko. 1999. "The Development of Sattvānumāna from the Refutation of a Permanent Existent in the Sautrāntika Tradition." Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens 43, 231-54.
Information
  • Publisher :Korean Association of Buddhist Studies
  • Publisher(Ko) :불교학연구회
  • Journal Title :Korea Journal of Buddhist Studies
  • Journal Title(Ko) :불교학연구
  • Volume : 66
  • No :0
  • Pages :1-49